BUSINESS EDUCATION LECTURERS’ PERCEPTION OF CURRICULUM CHANGES REQUIRED FOR INTEGRATING BUSINESS EDUCATION INTO THE CHANGE AGENDA IN NIGERIA

By | June 26, 2016
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Demenongu Wuana, Ph.D

Jonathan T. Dera

Sundaywuana@gmail.com

jonathandera@gmail.com

Department of Business Education

College of Education, Katsina-Ala, Benue State

 

Abstract

The rapid changes that occur in the business world in form of new products, new technologies, new markets, new legislations, etc demand that the curriculum of Business education to be adaptive to our local demands as well as make us competitive globally.  Thus, the Nigerian Business education curriculum needs to be subjected to regular changes through review, revision, updating, etc to allow for new technologies and new pedagogical strategies to be incorporated into the programme thereby making it more responsive to the current change agenda in Nigeria.  Since teachers constitute a significant source of inputs for curriculum change, the present study was designed to determine the perception of Business education lecturers on the curriculum changes required for integrating Business education into the change agenda in Nigeria. A descriptive designed study, it covered eight (8) Colleges of Education in Benue, Nasarawa and Plateau States in the North-Central Nigeria with a population of 111 lecturers. The entire population was surveyed. A 5-point scale questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the respondents. Mean with standard deviation was used to answer the research questions while t-test was used in testing the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings were that the respondents did not accept the integration of new technologies such as e-commerce, e-banking and e-learning into the curriculum of Business education at the Colleges of Education level. Equally rejected by the respondents were the new pedagogical methods of teaching Business education such as case study, co-operative learning, learning by inquiry, web-based instructional method, etc. Again, the study found no significant difference between the opinions of lecturers in publicly owned and privately owned Colleges of Education on the new pedagogical methods required to integrate Business education into the change agenda in Nigeria. Therefore, it was recommended among other measures that proprietors and managers of Colleges of Education should intensify their staff development efforts in ICT and e-learning in particular so that Business education lecturers will be more acquainted with and alsoembrace new technologies for teaching and learning of the course in Nigeria.

Keywords: Perception, Business education, Lecturers, Curriculum Change, and Change Agenda

 

 


Background of the Study

In order for a nation to remain relevant and competitive in this dynamic and globalized world, its structures, institutions, and indeed, the citizenry must be responsive and adaptive to new trendsand new order both locally and globally. The upswings or upturns through which a nation passes as it matches toward development is what is referred to as change. The Webster’s New Twentieth Century Dictionary thus, defined change as making somebody or something different – to move away from one state, position or direction to another. In other words, change represents a shift from a dissatisfied state (the status quo) to a more desirable state or condition. In this perspective, change is viewed as a course or direction that leads to better attainment of national goals and therefore, add value to human lives (positive change) as opposed to a course or direction that creates pain or retards human progress (negative change).

Since human organizations are not static, change becomes a pre-condition for any society to move forward and this explains why changes are inevitable in all human organizations. It therefore, behooves on members of such organizations to embrace changes or risk lagging behind in new and better techniques of solving problems in their organizations. In fact, the popular adage that if you do not create change, change will create you” implies that whether we like it or not, change must occur and we will be compelled to adjust to it. Positive changes benefit the society enormously.

Some of the benefits of a positive change, according to Budha (2015), are that it brings about flexibility. Frequent changes make one adaptive to new situations, new environments, and new people. Again, change brings about improvements in our finances, jobs, living conditions, etc. So we need to do things differently to improve ourselves. Also, change brings about new opportunities and new beginnings. Each change is a turning page – it is about closing one chapter and opening another one which results to new beginnings and excitements to life. Furthermore, change relieves a person from the boredom of doing the same thing in exactly the same manner for many years which leads to a completely dull, predictable and uninteresting life. Change occurs in families, organizations and the larger society.

Regardless of the level at which it takes place,Ejeka (2007) argued that change is brought about as a result of the perception of managers or the employees or both on better ways of moving their organizations forward. Perception, according to Longman Business English Dictionary (2000), is the combining of sensations into recognition of an object or a phenomenon. In other words, perception represents a way people acquire information about their environment through the five senses of seeing, hearing, touching, tasting and smelling. The information is then organized and interpreted to explain what is happening around them. Therefore, perception is based on personal selection, organization, and interpretation of the stimulus. As used this study, perception refers to the thoughts or views of Business education lecturers on what ought to be included in the curriculum of Business education in order to integrate it into the change agenda in Nigeria.

To integrate means to make somebody or something fit in with a particular group. In this context, integrate means to fit into the curriculum of Business education new contents and new pedagogical methods (teaching methods) in order to make the programme more relevant to the realization of the objectives of the change agenda in Nigeria. The change agenda, on the other hand, is a list of new strategic policies, actions, and programmes packaged by the Federal Government of Nigeria towards rechanneling our development efforts so that better results could be achieved (The All Progressives Congress (APC) Manifesto, 2013). The manifesto identified five key areas under the change agenda. These critical areas are: national security, good governance, human capital development, economic development, land and natural resources, and foreign policy. For each of the sectors identified, there are clearly articulated policy directions and accompanying strategies to indicate how the vision will be implemented. In this study, however, the aspect of the change agenda that is our focus is that of education and Business education, in particular.

Education, according to Bisong (2000) involves the transmission of knowledge, skills and attitudes in such a way that individuals who submit themselves to the process are transformed (changed) for the better.There is a conceptual truth here that a person is transformed by what he knows and understands. It follows clearly that students who go through the educational process and do not change in any way for the better have not only remained uneducated but have wasted their time and the nation’s resources. Education generally prepares people to live and adjust to their changing environment. Business education, on the other hand, is perceived by Aliyu (2013) as an education programme meant to adjust individuals to their business environment. It is essentially education for and about business. In other words, Business education offers intellectual and vocational preparation for people to fit into industrial, businessand office occupations and to meaningfully contribute to the development of the national economy. Business education programmes are offered at the levels of basic education, senior secondary school, Colleges of Education, Polytechnics and Universities in Nigeria. Teachers that handle this programme at the tertiary level of education (Colleges of Education, polytechnics, and Universities) in Nigeria are referred to as Business education lecturers. However, the present study covers Business education lecturers in the Colleges of Education because they provide the foundation training for business teachers as well as prepare students for advanced studies/careers in business. The vocational nature of Business education has made it a focal point of attention by the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) in recent times.

The APC-led government in its manifesto (2013) has pledged to ensure the availability of quality education (including Business education) at all levels and to also strive to increase the number of skilled Nigerians that would form the bedrock of national economic development. On vocational and technical education in particular, the APC manifesto maintained that government plans to embark on vocational training, entrepreneurial and skill acquisition schemes for graduates along with the creation of a Small Business Loans Guarantee Scheme to create at least one million jobs every year for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, government would ensure a greater proportion of expenditure on higher education is devoted to science and technology education with more spaces allocated to science and technology-oriented courses. These pronouncements on vocational education are clear indications that the present Nigerian government desires to use this form of education to reshape the country via the change agenda.However, as observed by Wuana and Abul (2014), the Business education programme in Nigeria is bedeviled by notable challenges prominent of which is that of making the curriculum relevant to the needs of learners and to the current realities in Nigerian. According to the authors, unless these curriculum deficiencies are urgently corrected, business education may not be able to contribute its quota meaningfully towards the realization of the nation’s vision on vocational and technical education. Curriculum broadly is defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. It may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with the instructional contents, materials, resources, and processes of evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. Offorma (2009) viewed curriculum as a document, plan, or blue print or an instructional guide which is used for teaching and learning to bring about desirable learner behavioural change.It is an instrument by means of which schools seek to translate the expectations of the society in which they function into concrete reality.Nigeria, as a nation is undergoing transformation through the change agenda of the government. It is, therefore, expected that all aspects of the education system (Business education inclusive) should offer concrete solutions to the nation’s challenges. This can only be possible where the school curriculum undergoes regular revisions or changes to reflect current national challenges.

Curriculum change, according to Onyesom, Egbule and Okwuokenye (2012), means regular update of curriculum objectives, contents, instructional delivery techniques, modern equipment/facilities, and evaluation methods that will fit Business education into the new agenda in Nigeria. It is also referred to as retooling the curriculum which involves taking a fresh look at what employers/industry expect from our graduates, and incorporating these expectations into the curriculum.This conforms with Offorma (2009) assertion that curriculum should not be rigid but should be adaptive and embrace societal changes.

Rapid changes are taking place in the business world particularly in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) such as e-business, e-commerce, e-banking, e-learning, etc. Similar technologies are emerging in teaching, learning and evaluation in Business education.All these changes need to be incorporated in the curriculum of the discipline to make it more relevant to current trends in Nigeria. Furthermore, Ottewill and Macfarlane (2003) argued that the need to maintain a strong real world focus in the teaching of Business education is necessitated by the fact that the Business education curriculum is vocational, practical and training-oriented. Besides the incorporation of new technologies into the curriculum of Business education, there is need to employ teaching approaches that ensure that learning takes place in authentic and real-world context. Generally, teachers are a major source of information for curriculum development/ improvement. Therefore, Business education lecturers (as key operators of Business education curriculum) are in a better position to suggest appropriate curriculum changes in the area. Hence the present study is intended to find out from these lecturers their perception of the curriculum changes that are required at the level of Colleges of Education to make Business education programme (General Business education component) aligned with the current change mantra inNigeria.

 

Statement of the Problem

For any nation to advance, the education system through the curriculum should be able to prepare people with the right competencies to bring about desirable changes. The Nigerian business environment is changing at a blistering pace and Business education curriculum should capture these changes so that products of the programme will be sufficiently grounded both in theory and practice to be able to fit into these changes.However, as noted by Wuana and Abul (2014), the Business education curriculum particularly at the Colleges of Education level in Nigeria is deficient in terms of new trends in business particularly in the area of ICT (contents) and the emerging pedagogical methods to respond to ICT demands of the contemporary business environment in Nigeria. As potential source of information for curriculum improvement/change, Business education lecturers should offer valuable inputs on how best to improve the curriculum. The study is, therefore, set out to determine the perception of Business education lecturers in the North-Central Nigeriaon the curriculum changes required to integrate Business education into the change agenda in Nigeria.

 

Purpose of the Study

The central purpose of the study is to find out the perception of Business education lecturers on the curriculum changes required to integrate Business education into the change agenda in Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Find out the perception of Business education lecturers on the content changes required to integrate Business education into the change agenda in the North-Central Nigeria; and
  2. Find out the perception of Business education lecturers on the new pedagogical methods required to integrate Business education into the change agenda in the North-Central Nigeria.

 

Significance of the Study

The study will be beneficial to curriculum planners in the field of Business education, Business education students at the Colleges of Education level, proprietors of Colleges of Education in Nigeria, the National Commission for Colleges of Education, Business education lecturers, and future researchers in Business education.

 

Research Questions                                                            

  1. What is the perception of Business education lecturers on the new curriculum contents required at Colleges of Education for integrating Business education into the change agenda in the North-Central Nigeria?
  2. What is the perception of Business education lecturers on the new pedagogical methods required at Colleges of Education for integrating Business education into the change agenda in the North-Central Nigeria?

 

Null Hypothesis (Ho)

There is no significant difference between the mean perception of Business education lecturers in publicly-owned and privately-owned Colleges of Education in the North-Central Nigeria on the new pedagogical methods required for integrating Business education into the change agenda.

The null hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.

 

Methodology

The study adopted a descriptive survey design to obtain the perceptions of Business education lecturers on the curriculum changes required to integrate Business education into the change agenda in the Nigeria. The study covered 8 Colleges of Education in the three states of North-Central Nigeria, namely Benue, Nasarawa, and Plateau. There are 5 publicly-owned and 3 privately-owned Colleges of Education in the area of study (The National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE, 2015). A total of 111 lecturers are on the academic staff list of these institutions made up of 71 lecturers in public Colleges of Education and 40 lecturers in private Colleges of Education. The entire population was surveyed.

A structured questionnaire comprising 35 items was used for data collection. The questionnaire titled “Business Education Lecturers’ Perception of Curriculum Changes Required for the Change Agenda in Nigeria Questionnaire” (BEDLECPCCRECANQ) comprised two sections, A and B. Section ‘A’ requested for the personal data of the respondents while Section ‘B’ contained items meant to answer the two research questions arranged on a 5-point scale with response options of Very Highly Perceived (VHP), Highly Perceived (HP), Averagely Perceived (AP), Lowly Perceived(LP), and Not Perceived (NP). Section ‘B’ was further sub-divided into two (2) clusters to address the two research questions. Three experts, two from Business Education Section, Benue State University, Makurdi validated the instrument.The questionnaire was subjected to reliability testing and it obtained a reliability coefficient of .80. Mean with standard deviation was the statistical tool used in answering the research questions while t-test at 0.05 level of significance was used to test the null hypothesis. For the research questions, any item with a mean rating of equal to or more than 3.50 was accepted as highly perceived (HP) while an item with a mean rating of less than 3.50 was rejected as not perceived (NP). In order to accept or reject the null hypothesis, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) computedsignificant t-test values and the SPSS t-test decisions were used. The null hypothesis was accepted if the SPSS computed significant t-test value was above 0.05and with SPSS t-test decision of “Not Significant (NS)”.However, where the SPSS computed significant t-test value equal to or less than 0.05 and with t-test decision of “Significant (S)”, the null hypothesis was rejected.

 

Results

Research Question One

What is the perception of Business education lecturers on the new curriculum contents required at Colleges of Education for integrating Business education into the change agenda in the North-Central Nigeria?

 

Table 1

Mean and Standard Deviations of the Business Education Lecturers’ Perception of the New Curriculum Contents required at Colleges of Education for integrating Business Education into the Change Agenda in North-Central Nigeria

table1

 

 

The results in Table 1 revealed that fourteen (14) items had mean scores ranging from 3.52 to 3.95 implying that these items received favourable perception of the respondents as the new curriculum contents required at the Colleges of Education for integrating Business education into the change agenda in Nigeria. However, the table further showed that five (5) items, viz; item numbers 15, 16, 17, 18 & 24 respectively with means scores ranging from 3.11 to 3.45 were not perceived by the respondents for this purpose. Nevertheless, the cluster mean of 3.51 and a standard deviation of 0.58 indicated that the respondents highly perceived all the items in this cluster as the new curriculum contents required for integrating Business education into the change agenda in Nigeria.

 

Research Question Two:

What is the perception of Business education lecturers on the new pedagogical methods required at Colleges of Education for integrating Business education into the change agenda in the North-Central Nigeria?


Table 2

Mean and Standard Deviations of Business Education Lecturers’ Perception of the New Pedagogical Methods required at Colleges of Education for integrating Business Education into the change agenda in North-Central Nigeria

table2

 

The results presented in Table 2 showed that three (3) items, namely; item numbers 27, 33 and 34 with mean ratings of 3.59, 3.54 and 3.64 respectively were highly perceived as the new pedagogical methods required at Colleges of Education for integrating Business education into the change agenda in the North Central Nigeria. Six (6)

 

of the items, however, did not receive the respondents’ favourable perception since their mean ratings fell below the bench mark of 3.50. Again, the cluster mean of 3.27 and a standard deviation of 0.67 indicated that all the items in this cluster were not perceived by the respondents as the new pedagogical methods for integrating Business education into the change mantra in the area.

Null Hypothesis

There is no significant difference between the mean perception of Business education lecturers in publicly-owned and privately-owned Colleges of Education in the North-Central Nigeria on new pedagogical methods required for integrating Business education into the change agenda.


 

Table 3

T-test analysis of the significance difference between the mean perception of Business education lecturers in publicly-owned and privately-owned Colleges of Education in the North-Central Nigeria on new pedagogical methods required for integrating Business education into the change agenda

table3

 

 

 

Results in Table 3 showed the t-test analysis of the significant difference between the mean perception of Business education lecturers in publicly-owned and privately-owned Colleges of Education in the North-Central Nigeria on new pedagogical methods required for integrating Business education into the change agenda. The results showed that all the items had significant or probability values greater than 0.05 which is the set level of significance. Also, the cluster t-value of 0.22 with a significant value of 0.82 showed that the mean difference in the perception of the two categories of Business education lecturers is not statistically significant. Therefore, the null hypothesis which postulated that there is no significant difference between the mean perception of Business education lecturers in publicly-owned and privately-owned Colleges of Education in the North-Central Nigeria on new pedagogical methods required for integrating Business education into the change agenda is accepted.

 

Findings of the Study

The study found that:

  1. Business education lecturers in the area of study did not favourable perceive the inclusion of the emerging technologies in Business education such as e-business, e-commerce, e-banking and e-learning in the curriculum of Business education for the change agenda.
  2. The case study, business internship and field interview pedagogical methods were accepted by the Business education lecturers. On the other hand, the lecturers rejected the use of co-operative learning strategy, learning by inquiry, team-based learning, web-based instructional strategy, classroom video conferencing and peer instruction methods.
  3. Business education lecturers in publicly owned and privately owned Colleges of Education in the North-Central Nigeria shared the same view on the new pedagogical methods required for integrating Business education into the change agenda.

 

Discussion of Findings

          The first finding of this study revealed that Business education lecturers in the area of study rejected the integration of emerging technologies such as e-business, e-commerce, e-banking and e-learning into the curriculum contents of the Business education programme at the Colleges of Education level. This is somehow surprising because Business education graduates are expected to make use of these technologies either in teaching or in other areas of business application. The rejection of these new technologies by Business education lecturers is therefore, worrisome because the situation may further widen the gap between school (theory) and real life experiences (practice) which should be the concern of all business educators. In any case, the above finding shows that Business education lecturers in the area of study are ignorant of the relevance of these new technologies in modern business environment in Nigeria and globally. It could also be explained that facilities for the teaching and learning of these new technologies are not readily available in the Colleges of Education in the covered by the study.     Furthermore, the situation could be explained on the lecturers’ inability to acquire relevant skills to handle these emerging technologies in business hence their apathy toward these new technologies. Better still, it could mean that these lecturers are simply reluctant to embrace change and would rather prefer the status quo to be maintained. Be that as it may, the Business education lecturers’ non-acceptance of the inclusion of emerging technologies into the Business education curriculum is totally unacceptable. This is in view of the fact that for any business organization to remain competitive in the modern era, it must be adaptive to new changes particularly in the area of emerging technologies in business. It is important that skills in these new technologies need to be imparted to the business teacher trainers at the Colleges of Education early enough so as to meet the current challenges posed by globalization.

The above finding is consistent with that of Nwanewezi and Isifeh-Okpokwu (2008) who also found that the right environment for teaching and use ofICT is lacking in most Nigerian educational institutions. Similarly, Nonye and Nwosu (2012) attributed the non-performance of Business education graduates in the use of modern technological facilities to lack of proper training in the handling of these technologies in schools and colleges. This situation makes the Business education graduate unsuitable in a modern business work environment.

Again, the study found that new teaching methods such as the co-operative learning, learning by inquiry, team-based learning, web-based instructional strategy, class-room video conferencing, and peer instruction methods were not perceived by the Business education lecturers as suitable instructional delivery methods that could help Business education to meet the needs of the change agenda in Nigeria. Just like the finding on emerging technologies portrayed, this finding again demonstrates that Business education lecturers in the area of study are not abreast of the new pedagogical methods to cope with the changing nature of business. Put somewhat differently, the finding indicates that Business education lecturers are more comfortable with their traditional teaching methods.

The above finding presents yet another unacceptable situation because just as we advocate for changes in curriculum contents, new methods of teaching also need to be adopted in Business education so as to meet the objectives of the change agenda in Nigeria.To support this line of thinking, Attwell and Hughes (2010) contended that the modern Business education curriculum demands an e-teachnig approach (i.e. e-learning pedagogy) which is achievable only when teachers adopt modern teaching approaches and that educational institutions are adequately funded to provide facilities for these instructional methods to thrive.

The study also found that no significant difference existed between the mean perceptionof Business education lecturers in publicly-owned and privately-owned Colleges of Education on the new pedagogical methods required for integrating Business education into the change agenda in Nigeria. That is, ownership status of Colleges of Education in the area of study does not significantly affect the opinion ofBusiness education lecturers on the new pedagogical methods required to align Business education to the objectives of the change agenda in Nigeria. This could mean that these lecturers, whether in public or private Colleges of Education, have the same training background and their work environments do not significantly differ. The finding, however, is in line with that of Amesi, Akpomi and Okwuanaso (2014) who also found that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of lecturers on the effectiveness of teaching strategies in business education and how it sustains ICT in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

 

Conclusion  

Business education lecturers in the Colleges of Education in the North-Central Nigeria did not perceive as necessary the integration of new technologies like e-commerce, e-business, e-learning and e-banking into the curriculum contents of Business education. Similarly, these lecturers did not perceive the new pedagogical methods like the co-operative learning strategy, learning by inquiry, team-based learning, web-based instructional strategy, classroom video conferencing and peer instruction methods as appropriate pedagogical methods to be incorporated into the Business education programme. This trend portends great danger for Business education in Nigeria as it denies both the lecturers and the recipients of the programme the opportunity of maximizing the benefits of the emerging technologies in business that could be exploited for the realization of the objectives of the change agenda in Nigeria.

 

Recommendations

  1. Proprietors and managers of Colleges of Education should intensify their staff development efforts in ICT and e-learning in particular so that Business education lecturers will be more acquainted with and also embrace new technologies for teaching and learning the course. This, they can do by organizing regular sensitization workshops and also sponsoring teachers on in-service training in ICT.
  2. Proprietors and managers of Colleges of Education in the area of study should properly fund these colleges by way of providing adequate ICT facilities and making the college environment conducive enough for the teaching and learning of ICT.

 

 

References

 

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Onyesom, M., Egbule, N. C., & Okwuokenye, A. E. (2012). Business education in Nigeria: Changes,     challenges and chances. In Ekpenyong, L. E. (ed) Emerging Challenges in Business Education.        Association of Business Educators of Nigeria (ABEN), 2 (1), 97 – 104.

 

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The All Progressives Congress (APC, 2013).A new party – a new Nigeria.The APC Manifesto. Retrieved     October15, from www.apcpressreleases.com/the-apc-ma

 

The National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE, 2015). List of NCCE approved colleges of   education. Retrieved  November, 10 from www.ncceonline.edu.ng/colleges.php.

 

Wuana, S. D. & Abul, J. N. (2014).Restructuring business education curriculum for adaptation to climate change in Nigeria.In Denga, D. I. (ed). Vocational Technical Education   and Climate Change:    Issues,        Challenges and Prospects. Katsina-Ala: SVTE Publications.

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