DETERMINANTS OF FEMALE STUDENTS’PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS IN BENUE NORTH EAST SENATORIAL ZONE (ZONE A)

By | June 26, 2016
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Tavershima James Anom

Department of Physical and Health Education

College of Education, Katsina-Ala

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

The determinants of female students’ participation in sports in Benue North East Senatorial Zone (Zone A) were investigated in this study.  The study was a survey research involving 365 female students in 70 secondary schools in the study area. Three research questions were used for the study.  Determinants of female students’ participation in sports questionnaire (DFSPSQ) was used to collect data from the female students.  The instrument was validated by Physical and Health Educators.  Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s Alpha and was found to be 0.744.  Data collected were analyzed using frequency, percentages, mean, standard deviation and the chi-square test of goodness of fit test.  The results showed that both parental influence, teachers’ influence and influence of sports facilities were significant determinants of female students’ participation in sports.  Based on the findings, recommendations such as teachers should continue to involve themselves in training and supervision of female students’ sports activities during school sports programme among others were made.

 

Introduction

There has been a strong feeling by different authors and the public generally that women in all our societies should be involved in sports at all levels.  This is because even at the world levels, women are found participating in all sports freely.  Sport organizers always make efforts to encourage women to participate in sports due to its intrinsic and extrinsic values (Opadiji, 2002).  In spite of these efforts, there is still an apparent general apathy being shown by women to sports.  There is no doubting the fact that Nigeria sport development over the years has been one sided in favour of men.  One will easily recall names of Nigerian national and international sports men in their hundreds, while Nigerian sports women can be enumerated on the finger tips (Adamu, 1993: Adeyanju, 1999).  The apparent lukewarmness exhibited by women in sports participation led to the formation of the Nigerian Association of Women in Sports (NAWIS) on December 1st, 1990 (Omoruan, 1996).  This has remained the concern of the people interested in sports such as sports organizers, sports sociologists and those who carry out researches in sports.

In Nigeria today, sports are gradually gaining recognition as a way of life of the people.  However, Ikhioya (2001) noted that the number of sports in which the female participate are few and the frequency of this participation is also low.  Dike (2005) confirming the above observed that the extent to which the females get involved in sports leaves much to be desired because while only a few of them take active part in the competitions, majority of the females do not even watch others perform.  One of the problems associated with female sports participation is that of uneven distribution of attention to the female students.  In a survey, Dubois (1990) observed that over emphasis was laid on the training of star athletes at the expense of mass participation and hindered many girls from participating in sports.  The ultimate effect of this undue emphasis is that new talents are not discovered.

Sports as competitive games are found in most societies.  Sports have formed a way of life of Nigerians and therefore a part of their culture.  This is reflected in the space allotted to sports in the print media, radio and television, the number of stadia and amount of time spent in the evening at sports areas.  If one includes the rate of involvement in terms of participation in competitive sports, school physical education classes, sports spectatorship and followership in the mass media, then sports in industrial societies have become institutions of modern life (Porter, 2002).

Culturally in Nigeria, boys and girls are brought up to internalize from early stages, their adult sex roles.  The boys are expected to participate in sports and other activities requiring physical exertion and prowess that are marks of maleness.  The girls as future mothers are taken to be fragile and attractive since their roles are perceived to be mainly those of child bearing and home keeping (Dzongor & Anom, 2008).  It is possible that recent female sports mobilization organized by different sports associations throughout the federation such as the 2004 female soccer competition, the 2004 female basketball competition and the all female students soccer competition respectively has influenced female participation in sports (Ladani, 2006).

In view of the review above, this study is poised to identify the determinants of female students’ participation in sports.  The study aims to bring out the factors that encourage female participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State.  For better achievement, the study will also make efforts to investigate the influence of parents and teachers including the influence of facilities as perceived determinants for female students’ participation in sports.

One’s feelings of personal competence at a task is a crucial determinant of success or failure in that task, it is in line with this that Harter (1978) proposed a theory named after him, the Harter’s competence motivation theory which is purely a theory of achievement, motitation and competence. In sports, if an athlete feels that she has put in enough of her time and energy into the training she then goes into the competition with high feelings of competence and vice-versa.  The serious training therefore in turn becomes a motivational factor that leads to success in sports.  Since secondary schools exist under cultural settings, it could be rightly argued that such background may influence female perception, orientation as need for choice for rejection of certain practices in sports.  According to Frosts and Moore (2006) the teacher’s perception of need and encouragement for or pressures on the female will play a significant role in their general sports participation as well as choice of activity.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that determine female students’ sports participation in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State.

Specifically, the study is set to determine if:

  • Parental attitudes influence female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State.
  • Teachers’ attitude determines female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State.
  • Facilities influence female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State.

To have a focus and clear direction for the study, the following research questions guided the study:

  • Does parental influence determine female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State?
  • Do teachers’ influence determine female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State?
  • Do sports facilities influence female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State?

 

 

Method:

The survey research design was adopted for the study.  The sample of the study comprised 365 female students from 70 secondary schools in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State which comprises seven Local Government Areas (Anom, 2014) see table 1 below.


 

Table 1:  The sample used for the study

S/NO LGA No of Schools Total No. of Female students per LGA
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Katsina-Ala

Vandeikya

Kwande

Konshisha

Ushongo

Ukum

Logo

Total

11

13

15

9

8

8

6

70

62

69

73

45

40

40

36

365

Source:  Field Data collected between 2009 and 2014.

 

 

All the sampled 365 female students from the population of 3,650 female students were used for the study.  The researcher considered the above sample size adequate because according to Nwana (1982) 10 percent of sample is allowed if the population is a few thousands.  Also Krisejie and Morgan (1970) agreed that all samples equivalent to 10 percent of the population are fully allowed to be used in carrying out a research. A researcher structured questionnaire named ‘Determinants of Female Students’ Participation in Sports Questionnaire (DFSPSQ) was used to collect data for the study.

The questionnaire was divided into three sections as follows:  Section A of the DFSPSQ consisted of 3 items on personal data such as name of school, level of study and parents educational background.  Section B1 was made up of five statements on parental attitudes towards female students’ participation in sports.  Section B2 was made up of 5 items on teachers’ attitude towards sports participation by female students.  Section B3 was made up of 5 items on facilities influence on female students’ sports participation.

The subjects were expected to respond to the statements on a five point Likert-type scale of strongly agree (SA) 5 points, agree (A) 4 points, undecided (U) 3 points, disagreed (d) 2 points, strongly disagree (SD) 1 point, by ticking in the column against each statement that described their opinion.

The instrument was validated by lecturers from the Physical and Health Education Department of College of Education Katsina-Ala and lecturers from Human Kinetics and Health Education Department of Benue State University, Makurdi.  Cronbach’s Alpha was considered adequate.  The copies of the questionnaire were distributed by the researcher to 365 female students of SSI and SSII in their schools and collected back on the spot after completion of all the questionnaires.

The questionnaires collected were carefully inspected and all the 365 were found to be fully completed and were used for data analysis.  The criterion mean of 3.00 was established, against which all calculated mean scores were judged to answer research questions.

Conclusion on each of the items was based on the scale computed along the 5-point likert scale used in the study, a mean of 3.00 or more was adopted but the right mean was 3.50.  Since 3.50 could be approximated to 4.00, which stand for agreement in a 5-point likert scale, scales lower than 3.50 were regarded as disagreement.  The hypotheses were tested using the chi-square goodness of fit statistics at 0.05 level of significance.

 

Results and Discussion of Findings

Analysis of Mean Responses

Table 2:  Mean responses of research variables

S/No Variable Mean SD Remarks
1.

2.

3.

Parental influence

Teachers’ influence

Facilities influence

4.40

4.70

4.14

0.68

0.74

2.07

Strong determinant

Strong determinant

Strong determinant

Analysis of parental influence on female students’ participation in sports showed that parents were interested in their female students’ participation in sports.  This is evident from an aggregate mean of 4.40 which is greater than the criterion mean of 3.50.

Research question 2 sought to find out if teachers’ influence determine female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State.  Mean analysis of this variable showed that teachers’ influence determined female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” since the mean score of 4.70 obtained was greater than the established mean of 3.50.

The study finally sought to find out if facilities determined female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State.  Mean analysis of the variable showed that facilities are a determinant of female students’ participation in sports in zone “A: since the mean score of 4.14 obtained was greater than the established mean of 3.50.

Data collected to test the determinants of female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State was analysed using chi-square goodness of fit test.  The results are presented below:

Hypothesis I:  Female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State is not significantly determined by parental influence.

Table III: summary of chi-square test of goodness of fit test on parental influence as determinant of female students’ participation in sports.

Response fo fe X2cal X2tab Df p Remarks
SD

D

UD

A

SA

0

7

17

286

55

73.0

73.0

73.0

73.0

73.0

 

 

568.249

 

 

7.83

 

 

3

 

 

0.000

 

 

Significance

Total 365 365          

X2 = 568,249, df =3, P<0.05

Table III above provides the result of the chi-square test of goodness of fit test on parental influence on female students’ participation in sports.  We can see from this table that our test is statistically significant.  Since the calculated chi-square of 568.249 is greater than chi-square table value of 7.82 at df 3, with a P value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05 (X2= 568.249, df = 3, P < 0.05), we can therefore reject the null hypothesis which stated that female students participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State is not significantly determined by parental influence.  This means that female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State is significantly determined by parental influence.


Hypothesis II:  Teachers’ Influence does not significantly influence female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State

Table 3:  Summary of chi-square test on teachers’ influence on female students’ participation in sports.

Response fo fe X2cal X2tab Df p Remarks
SD

D

UD

A

SA

6

6

15

282

56

73.0

73.0

73.0

73.0

73.0

 

 

771.397

 

 

9.49

 

 

4

 

 

0.000

 

 

Significance

Total 365 365          

X2=771.397, df=4, P=0.00

The table above provides the results of the chi-square test of goodness of fit test on teachers’ influence on female students’ participation in sports.  We can see from this table that our test is statistically significant.  Since the calculated chi-square 771.397, is greater than the table value of 9.49 at df 4 with a P value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05 (X2=771.397, df =4, P<0.05), we can therefore reject the null hypothesis which stated that female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State is not significantly determined by teachers’ influence.  Instead we can assert that female students’ participation in sports is significantly determined by teachers’ influence.

Hypothesis III:  Female student’s sports participation in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State is not significantly determined by facilities influence.

Table V:  Summary of chi-square test on facilities influence which determine female students’ participation in sports.

Response fo fe X2cal X2tab df p Remarks
SD

D

UD

A

SA

0

7

17

286

55

73.0

73.0

73.0

73.0

73.0

 

 

620.247

 

 

9.49

 

 

4

 

 

0.000

 

 

Significance

Total 365 365          

X2=620.247, df=4, P=0.05

The table V above provides the result of the chi-square test of goodness of fit test on facilities influence as determinant of female students’ participation in sports.  We can see from this table that our test is statistically significant.  Since the calculated chi-square of 620.247 is greater than the chi-square table value of 9.49 at df 4, with a P value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05 (X2=620.247, df=4,P<0.05).  We can therefore reject the null hypothesis which stated that female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State is not significantly determined by the influence of facilities.  This means that female students’ participation in sports is significantly determined by facilities influence.

The results obtained in the analysis are in line with the research questions and hypotheses.  The determinants of female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District of Benue State was the purpose of the study.  For the above purpose to be achieved, the study sets some variables as perceived determinants of female students’ participation in sports.  These included parental influence, teachers influence and influence of facilities.  These variables are discussed in the paragraphs that follow:

The finding on parental influence showed that parental influence is a determinant of female students’ participation in sports.  In support of the above results, Frost and Moore (2005) state that sports involvement in childhood, is reinforced by parents’ encouragement, continues into middle age and diminishes only in the fast stage of the life cycle.  Again, Gupta (1987) stated that parents’ educational level is positively linked to motivation of their children to participate in sports.  Supporting the above claim again, Akintunde (2001), stated that no other agent of socialization is as important to the total make up of the child as his family, her primary socialization begins in the family set up.  Siedentop (1998) regarded the family as more influential than the teacher in that if helps to mould the life of a child.  It is therefore to conclude that parental influence strongly determined female sports participation in the above mentioned study area.

This research also identified teachers’ influence as a determinant of female students’ participation in sports.  In support of the above findings, Nayeek (2007), Morakinyo (2007) and Watt (2004) have identified the school as the second home of the child and an important socializing agent as a result of teachers’ positive performance in all fields.  In addition to the above, Omoruan (1996) found that athletes and non-athletes alike receive more encouragement from teachers than from other persons.  In Uti and Ojeme’s (1997) opinion, instructional programme prepared by teachers provides encouragement and pressure on their students through varied interesting sporting activities.  Also Olajide (2007) maintained that activities in sports including success and the extent of participation are determined by the practical man (the teacher) on one hand and the sports scientist (Physical educator) on the other hand.

Again, in support of the above concerning teachers influence, Ladani (2000), stated that in order to perfect the performance, the teacher or coach must always be present for the practical activities and offer full supervision of the activities.  Poor programming of physical education activities by teachers can hinder sports participation.  In support of this statement Fasan (2002), stated that for females to be fully involved in the evening programmes of physical education, parents must fully be involved in the planning with the teachers.  Also concerning teachers’ influence on female sports participation, Dada (2005) opined that there should be a sound teacher-student relationship which must always promote effective teaching and learning in all courses including sports.

The results of this research also proved that the influence of facilities is a determinant of female sports participation.  In support of facilities that they influence sports participation, Watt (2004) noted that for an environment to become highly involved and continue effectively in sports participation area, there must be well constructed fields, courts, halls and swimming pools etc.  In support of the above Olajide (2004) stated that appropriate facilities are essential to meet the needs of women participation in sports.  Again, Dishman (1981) opined that major accesses to facilities were related to physical activity participation by both males and females.  On the whole, sports facilities are very important for both male and female athletes throughout the world.  Rao (2004), advocates that all institutions of learning throughout the world should provide adequate sports facilities which will encourage the students to take part in physical activities.  Greendorfer (1992) noted that for an individual to become involved and continue in sports effectively, he or she must be in an environment, which is highly supportive of sports facilities.  In addition to the above, Udoh and Jona (1992), opined out that it would be impossible to achieve satisfactory results from students whose training sports facilities were inadequate or sub-standard.  It can finally be concluded that an environment with standard sports facilities will surely enhance sports participation.

 

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions have been drawn:

  • Parental influence positively determines female students’ participation in sports in Zone “A” Senatorial District.
  • Teacher influence is a significant determinant of female students’ participation in sports in Benue North East Senatorial Zone of Benue State.
  • Facilities are a significant determinant of female students’ participation in sports in Benue North East Senatorial District of Benue State.

 

Recommendations

Based on the findings the following recommendations were made:

  • Parents should continue to involve their daughters in the school sports programmes.
  • Teachers should continue to involve themselves in training and supervision of female students’ sporting activities during school sports programmes.
  • Adequate facilities should continue to be given to the teachers and female students to sustain their momentum of interest in physical education activities.

 

 

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