EFFECT OF REPLACING MAIZE WITH OF RICE MILLING WASTE ON THE HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKENS

By | June 26, 2016
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Odeh, M. Ojor1

 Igwebuike, U. Joseph2

 Akwukwaegbu, S. Egbule1

 

1Department of Agricultural Education, School of Vocational & Technical Education, College of Education, Oju, Benue State

E-mail: mosesodeh65@gmail.com

2 Department of Animal Science, University of  Maiduguri,

Maiduguri, Borno State.

 

 

 

Abstract

Two hundred and twenty five (225) Anak-2000 day-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with graded levels of rice milling waste on the haematological parameters and serum biochemistry. The birds were allotted to five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates with 15 chicks each. Rice milling waste (RMW) replaced maize at O%(control), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in five diets that were fed ad libitum for a period of three and six weeks at starter and finisher phases respectively. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Designed (CRD). Results obtained showed that the haemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC), mean corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), monocyte, basophil and eosinophil were not significant (P > 0.05) between treatment. However, packed cell volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), and white blood cell (WBC) values were significantly different (P < 0.05). While urea, calcium and conjugated bilrubin mean values were similar (P > 0.05). The study did not reveal any adverse effect on the parameters investigated when RMW was used up to 100% level. Therefore RMW has been suggested as a possible replacer of maize in broiler chicken diets. Further study on the use of RMW as source of energy in layer diet is suggested.

Key words: Rice Milling Waste, Haematological parameters & Serum Biochemistry. 

 

 

Introduction

 

Blood is very vital to life and before any meaningful work can be done on the biology of birds, their blood must be studied in details (Oke et al., 2001). Shortage and high cost of conventional energy sources (maize, wheat e.t.c) due to the ever-increasing demand from both as staple food for man and as industrial raw material have called for alternative feed ingredients which are of low industrial use, very low human preference and hence reduce the cost of production, (Igwebuike et al., 1995; Ibiyo and Atteh, 2000; Awesu et al., 2002). Rice milling waste (RMW) has such potentials (Olomu, 1995; Dafwang and Shwarman, 1996). Therefore, the use of alternative feed ingredients like industrial by-products particularly RMW in poultry diets has been suggested as a means of alleviating feed scarcity and providing adequate animal protein for the citizens (Ogbonna et al., 1993; Dafwang and Shwarman, 1996; Amaefule et al., 2006). This study therefore was designed to provide further information on the utilization of RMW as energy source for the replacement of maize in broiler chicken diets. The effect of this dies change on haematology and serum biochemistry of the birds was investigated.

 

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted at the poultry unit of University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri. A total of two hundred and twenty five (225) Anak – 2000 day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed to five dietary treatments. RMW was used to replace maize on weight to weight basis at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% levels in diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Treatment 1 served as a control. Each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate (i.e. 45 chicks per treatment). The experimental design was the Complete Randomized Design (CRD). The chicks were brooded for 3 weeks during which times they were fed formulated test-starter and later six weeks on finisher diets. Feed and water were supplied ad libtum. Conventional management practices including vaccination were well observed in all the five treatments. The ingredient compositions of the experimental diets are shown in Tables 1 & 2.

At the end of the experiment, one bird per replicate was randomly selected and bled by severing the jugular vein. A set of blood samples were collected into bottles containing EDTA for haematological evaluation while another set of blood samples were collected without anticoagulant for blood chemistry evaluation. The bottles were kept in cooled cotton prior to analysis. Haematological parameters and blood chemistry were determined as described by Davice and Lewis (1999). Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance as described by Steel and Torrie (1980). Significant means separated by the method described by Duncan’s multiple range tests (1955).

 

Results and Discussion

Table 3 shows the effect of RMW based diets on the blood constituents of broiler chickens. The results indicate that haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), monocytes, basophils and eosinophils mean values showed no significant(P > 0.05)  difference from the control diet among treatments. While packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and white blood cell (WBC) mean values were significantly (P < 0.05) different. The WBC mean values of the broiler chickens ranged between 4.27 x 103/mm3 to 4.68 x 103/mm3. These values fall within the normal range reported by Jain (1986).


 

Table1: Ingredient and analysized chemical composition of broiler starter experimental diets

                                                               Diets/Treatments
Ingredients TO%RMW T2 25%RMW T3 50%RMW T75%RMW T5 100%RMW
Maize 54.00 40.50 27.00 13.50 0.00
RMW 0.00 13.50 27.00 40.50 54.00
Soybean 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00
GNC 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00
Wheat Offal 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00
Fish meal 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00
Blood meal 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Methionine 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Salt 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Pre-mix* 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Analysized Chemical Composition
Dry matter (DM) 94.90 94.27 93.53 93.90 94.03
Crude Protein (CP) 24.35 24.49 24.70 24.01 25.40
Crude Fibre (CF) 10.17 9.07 9.00 8.01 7.57
Ether Extract (EE) 3.27 5.47 2.20 2.27 2.23
Ash 5.37 4.77 4.20 4.43 4.60
NFE 52.02 52.59 53.66 54.75 54.41
ME (Kcal/kg) 3012.53 3216.15 2997.03 3015.87 3276.63

* = Premix supplying the following per kg:   vitamin A = 12,000.00IU, Vitamin E = 15000mg, folic acid = 1000mg, panthotenic acid = 1500mg, vitamin B12 = 15000mg, Vitamin B6 = 2,500mg, vitamin K = 2,000mg, choline = 50,000mg,  Manganese = 10,000mg, vitamin D3 = 25,000IU, Nicotinic acid = 40,000mg, vitamin B1=2000mg, vitamin B2 = 6,000mg, Biotin = 6,000mg, Vitamin C = 3,000mg, Copper = 15,000mg, Cobalt = 250mg and selenium = 1000mg

RMW                          =          Rice milling waste,

GNC                            =          Groundnut cake,

NFE                             =          Nitrogen free extract,

ME (kcal/kg)  =          37 x %cp + 81 x %EE + 35.50 x %NFE
(Pauzenga, 1985)

 

Table 2: Ingredient and analyzed chemical composition of broiler finisher experimental diets

Diets/Treatments
Ingredients TO%RMW T2 25%RMW T3 50%RMW T75%RMW T5 100%RMW
Maize 56.00 42.00 28.00 14.00 0.00
RMW 0.00 14.00 28.00 42.00 56.00
Soybean 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00
GNC 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00
Wheat Offal 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
Fish meal 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00
Blood meal 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Methionine 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Salt 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Pre-mix* 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Analysized Chemical Composition
Dry matter (DM) 94.57 94.13 94.97 93.90 93.73
Crude Protein (CP) 22.19 21.50 22.30 21.47 22.23
Crude Fibre (CF) 12.40 12.10 11.08 9.93 10.00
Ether Extract (EE) 4.73 4.10 3.23 3.10 2.97
Ash 4.80 4.83 4.07 3.97 3.90
NFE 52.31 53.93 52.05 56.50 56.60
ME (Kcal/kg) 3061.17 3042.06 2934.41 3053.69 3072.37
                                                           Levels of replacement of rice milling waste (Treatments)
Parameters 0%T1 25%T2 50%T3 75%T4 100%T5

 

SEM
 Packed cell volume (PCV, %)

Haemoglobin concentration (Hb.g/dl)

Red blood cell counts (RBC x 106/mm3)

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV,%)

Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH, %).

Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC.gm %)

23.00bc

6.73

2.96

77.70d

22.80b

 

29.28

26.33a

6.37

2.92

99.17a

21.79b

 

24.27

26.00a

6.13

3.00

86.67bc

20.45b

 

23.60

22.33c

6.73

2.44

91.52ab

27.60a

 

30.29

25.67ab

7.73

3.10

82.81cd

24.98ab

 

30.62

0.89*

0.43NS

0.04NS

1.25*

1.50*

 

2.50NS

 White blood cell count (WBC x 103/mm3)         4.27d                  4.37c              4.62ab            4.57b           4.68a           24.72*

Differential leucocyte Count (%)

Monocytes

Lymphocytes

Basophils

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

 

8.00

52.00

0.00

34.52

5.33

7.00

53.33

0.00

33.98

5.67

 

7.67

54.00

0.33

34.02

5.33

 

8.67

53.33

0.00

34.10

6.00

 

7.67

54.00

0.00

35.01

6.33

 

0.45NS

0.84NS

0.15NS

1.20NS

0.53NS

 

* = Premix supplying the following per kg:   vitamin A = 12,000.00IU, Vitamin E = 15,000mg, folic acid = 1000mg, panthotenic acid = 1500mg,vitamin B12 = 15000mg, Vitamin B6 = 2,500mg, vitamin K = 2,000mg, choline = 50,000mg,  Manganese = 10,000mg, vitamin D3 = 25,000IU, Nicotinic acid = 40,000mg, vitamin B1=2000mg, vitamin B2 = 6,000mg, Biotin = 6,000mg, Vitamin C = 3,000mg, Copper = 15,000mg, Cobalt = 250mg and selenium = 1000mg.

RMW                          =          Rice milling waste,

GNC                            =          Groundnut cake,

NFE                             =          Nitrogen free extract,

ME (kcal/kg)  =          37 x %cp + 81 x %EE + 35.50 x %NFE
(Pauzenga, 1985).

 

Table 3: Haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed maize and RMW – based diets

Key

NS     =Not Significant (P > 0.05)

*a, b, c        =Values with superscripts in the same row differed significantly (P<0.05).

SEM  =        Standard error of mean

 

However, neutrophil mean values as recorded (33.98 – 35.01%) in this study were higher than the range of 25-30% reported by Jain (1986). Neutrophils are key players in the body defensive mechanism against bacteria infection, and basophil component that plays its significant role in some type of immunologic hypersensitivity or due to eosinophil components that are involved in certain allergic reactions and parasitic infections (Robert et al., 1993; Davis & Lewis, 1999).

Irrespective of the levels of inclusion of RMW in broiler chicken diets, there was absence of mortality during the experimental period. Given the higher mean value of WBC recorded the ability of the experimental birds to resist diseases was similar to that reported by Robert et al. (1993). The high mean values of neutrophils and eosinophils as component of WBC of birds fed both control diet and RMW-based diets suggest good quality protein of the test feedstuff. The non-significant values among treatment groups for Hb, RBC and MCHC despite increasing level of inclusion of RMW suggest good quality nature of the RMW as energy feed. Most of the mean  values of the haematological parameters obtained for all the diets fall within the normal range of haematological standard as established by Mitruka and Rawsley (1977) and Rose et al.(1978) suggesting that RMW diet were not nutritionally inferior to maize as source of energy in broiler chicken diet.

For serum biochemistry, the mean values of the treatments for total protein and serum albumin differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the control diet while calcium, urea and conjugated bilirubin values were not (Table 4). The total protein values of the broiler chickens ranged between 24.67g/dl to 36.33g/dl. Treatment 2 gave the highest blood total protein mean value while the control gave the least. However, the higher mean values of total protein in RMW diets (28.33-36.33g/dl) compared to the control diet (24.67g/dl) suggest good quality protein of the test feedstuff since the higher the value of the total protein, the better the quality of the RMW (MVM, 1986). Treatment 5 gave the highest mean value of albumin (20.33g/dl) among treatments that was significantly (P < 0.05) difference from other diets. This shows higher ability as a clotting factor in preventing haemorrhage than other diets which is in line with the report of Robert et al. (1993).  Mean value of globulin in the treatments was significantly (P < 0.05) different. This implies that all the diets have the ability to fight against diseases (MVM, 1986) but Treatment 2 was superior to others because of its observed highest value of globulin (Table 4).

 

Table 4: Comparison of blood chemistry of broiler chickens fed maize and RMW-based diets.                               

 

Parameters                                Levels of replacement of maize by rice milling waste (Treatments)

0%T1 25%T2 50%T3 75%T4 100%T5 SEM
Total protein (g/dl)

Albumin (g/dl)

Globulin (g/dl)

Sodium (mmol/l)

Potassium (mmol/l)

Alkaline phosphate (IU/l)

Bicarbonate (mmol/l)

Calcium (mmol/l)

Chloride (mmol/l)

Urea (mmol/l)

Serum creatine (mmol/l)

Cholesterol (mmol/l)

Conjugated bilirubin (mmol/l)

Total bilirubin (mmol/l)

Glucose (g/dl)

24.67d

16.33c

8.34d

149.00

5.73a

133.00d

16.67

2.37

115.33b

3.47

58.33b

3.67a

2.67

3.67a

4.00b

36.33a

17.00c

19.33a

156.33

4.63

187.67a

18.33

2.20

119.00ab

3.03

66.67a

2.87b

2.00

3.54b

5.37a

28.33bc

18.69b

9.64b

155.33

4.00c

160.67b

18.33

2.13

119.33ab

3.07

61.00ab

2.60ab

1.67

3.35b

4.43b

31.33b

19.67ab

11.66b

156.33

4.27bc

157.33bc

17.33

2.17

120.67a

3.20

61.33a

3.20a

2.87

2.97c

5.73a

31.00bc

20.33a

10.67b

145.00

5.00b

148.67c

18.67

2.23

119.67ab

3.27

63.67a

3.70

2.10

3.80a

3.87b

2.04*

0.83*

0.21*

6.60NS

5.42*

3.12*

0.96NS

0.08NS

1.42*

0.19NS

0.87*

0.20*

0.52NS

0.27*

0.22*

Key

NS                               =          Not significant (P > 0.05)

* a, b, c, d                   =          Values with superscripts in the same row differed          significantly (P < 0.05).

 


Conclusion

The results of this study showed that maize could be replaced with 100% level of RMW in broiler chicken diets without adverse effect on the haematological parameters and serum biochemistry indices.

Recommendation

 

Further study is recommended to be conducted on layer chickens to establish RMW as source of energy in layer diets and to establish the level of inclusion.

 

References

 

Amaefule, K.U., Iheukwumere, F.C., Lawal, A.S., & Ezekwonna, A.A. (2006). Effect of treated milling rice waste on performance, nutrient retention, carcass and organ characteristics of finisher broiler. Intern. J. Poultry. Sci. 5:51-55.

Awesu, J.R., Bamgbose, A.M., Oduguwa, O.O., Fanimo, A.O., & Oguntona, E.B. (2002). Performance and nutrient utilization of cockerel finishers fed graded levels of rice milling waste, Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 29:181-188.

Dafwang, I.I. and Shwarman, E.B.N. (1996). Utilization of rice offal in practical rations for broiler chicks. Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 23:21-23.

Davice, J.V., & Lewis, S.M. (1999). Practical Haematology. 8th Edition Pp. 22-68. Longman group Ltd London.

Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple ranges and multiple F-Test. Biometrics, 11:1-2.

Ibiyo, L. M. and Atteh, J. O. (2005). Response of starter broilers to diets containing graded levels of rice bran with or without palm oil.Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 32: 39 – 45

 

Igwebuike, J. U., Alade, N. K., & Anyi, H. D. (1995). Effect of feeding Sorghum waste on the performance and organ weight of growing rabbits. E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 60: 195 – 200.

Jain, N.C. (1986). Schalm’s Veterinary Haematology. 4th Edition. Lea and Febrigen. Philadelphia, USA, Pl. 34-50.

Mitruka, B.M. and Rawsley, H.M. (1977). Clinical, biochemical and haematological reference value in normal experimental animal. Manson Publishing Company, New York.

MVM (1986). The Morck Veterinary Manual. 6th Edition. Merck and Co., INC. Rahway, N.J., USA, Pp. 1-19.

Oke, O.I., Joseph, & Udo, H. (2001). Proceeding of 6th Annual Conf. ASAN, September, 17-19, 2001, Maiduguri.

Ogbonna, J.U., Adebowale, E.A., Tewe, O.O., & Longe, O.G. (1993). Replacing maize with wheat offal in the diet of cockerels with sun-dried cassava peel meal: Effect on the digestibility of cell wall constituents. Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 20: 111-121.

Robert, K.M., Paryl, K.G., Peter, A.M., & Vector, W.R. (1993). Harper’s biochemistry, 23rd Edition Pp. 665, 668 and 763.

Rose, J.G., Christie, G., Holiday, W.G. & Jones, R.M. (1978). In Poultry Vet. Record, 102:29-31.

Steel, R.G.O. & Torrie, J.H. (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2nd Ed. McGrass Hill Books Co. Inc. New York, P. 63.

 

 

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