TIV FOLK THEATRE AS SOURCE MATERIAL FOR CULTURAL EDUCATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

By | June 26, 2016
Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Tyodoo Iyue

Theatre Arts Department

College of Education Katsina-Ala, Benue State

E-Mail: iyuetyodoo@gmail.com

 

Abstract

This study examined the functions and value of Tiv folk theatre and showed how it can be harnessed for cultural education of secondary school students. Specifically, the study focused on character, intellectual, vocational and physical training. The researcher used the artistic methodology for data collection while the study was anchored on the folkist theory. Findings during the study indicated that folk theatre activities are on the decline in Tiv society and those who are currently practicing it are doing it for economic gains. It was also discovered that the influence of western life, especially globalization has a negative effect on the practice of folk theatre among the students. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made: theatre arts scholars, especially those of Tiv origin must be encouraged to write plays that project aspects of Tiv customs that are fast becoming extinct. There is also the need to close the widening gap between culture and formal education in Nigeria and the certificate nature of education in Nigeria and deemphasize certificate acquisition in the Nigerian educational system. The study concluded that Nigeria’s yearning for peace, unity and progress can only be actualized through cultural education of the youth who are leaders of tomorrow.

Keywords: Folk theatre, cultural education and secondary education.

 

 

Introduction

Folk Theatre has played significant roles in cultural education of societies over the ages. However, the educational value of folk theatre is not adequately being utilized in Nigeria. This is because Nigeria’s educational system is purely academic-oriented, with little attention paid to our rich cultural heritage as a bedrock for the overall development of the youth. At the primary and secondary school levels, emphasis is placed on literary materials and a host of other subjects like Primary Science, Mathematics, Social Studies and among other subjects. At the home front, the traditional practice of parents gathering their children together in the evening and engaging them in cultural activities like songs, folktales, dances, riddles and jokes is no longer in vogue. This shows that neither the school nor the home adequately employs cultural activities for the proper training and education of the youths. Making a case for cultural education Omotosho (2013) informs that:

The Africans mode of training the young ones can aptly be described as education because education is the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or young adult develop the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour which are of positive value to the society in which he lives.(p54)

 

This form of education held sway and was considered sacrosanct to the social and moral development of the society. This means that before the introduction of writing, various Nigerian societies depended on oral tradition (folk theatre) in passing on rich and inspirational stories surrounding their customs, traditions and values which kept them together as a people. In the traditional Nigerian societies, folk theatre was a very important aspect of communal life, for it emphasized local tradition and dealt with rural life. It was also used for personal as well as group information sharing and discussion. Generally, folk theatre utilizes the spoken rather than the written medium, which creatively captures the way of life, emotions, aspirations, manners and hopes of the people.

This study’s emphasis is on the exploration of Tiv folk theatre to capture young learner’s interest for better psycho-motor, cognitive and affective development. Nkanga (2013) puts this in perspective when he says that:

Drama and theatre in its widest sense, involves diversity in the range of style, forms and contents and is here proposed for the Nigerian Secondary Schools to promote self-empowerment by providing young learners with opportunities to examine attitudes and values, practice skills in order to make well-informed decisions about their life style and society in future.(p.151)

 

Dramatic approach to education advocates a dimension in teaching and learning, whereby an enabling environment is created in the classroom to help the youth explore and experiment with ideas. It offers learners an opportunity to interact within themselves and their environment, thereby becoming active participants in the learning process. This method is participatory and process centred. It allows the teacher to introduce into the classroom dynamic activities that will allow for flexibility in application by adapting to creative modifications that will facilitate the learner’s easy access to knowledge acquisition. Using artistic methodology this study brings to the forefront how folk theatre could be harnessed as a veritable tool for cultural education of Secondary School students. But then it is imperative to explain some key concepts to place this paper in proper perspective.

 

Conceptual Framework

          Folk theatre is a work of art where authorship is communal and derived probably from ancient rituals and ceremonies performed by rural people. Encyclopaedia Americana (2004) aptly captures the concept of folk theatre and states that: “Folk theatre in its broadest sense is the part of culture, custom and beliefs of a society that is based on popular tradition, myths and legends. It is produced by the community and is usually transmitted orally or by demonstration” (p.498). Thus, Nigeria folk theatre can actually be divided into two broad categories: the sacred and the secular. While the sacred folk theatre mainly evolved around the aspects and stories from religion, myth, legends and rituals; the secular folk theatre actually emerged as a typical form of entertainment and education. Folk theatre adopts its mode of expression amidst dance, music, folktales, puppetry, proverbs, riddles and jokes. It is spirited, dynamic and ingenuous in forms and rich in variety. Folk theatre has established itself as the powerful medium of communication in our traditional societies. It seeks to reflect the social, cultural, political, economic and religious lives of the people. Commenting on the neglect of folk theatre, Meki (2001) attest to its copious values that:

The traditional child in the wisdom of his culture develops the spirit of sharing, caring and open mindedness, through the discipline of organized children’s dances and games. The modern child in the ignorance of his culture independently indulges capricious, inward –looking, self-conscious, sitting room dance caper which ignite such negative social attitudes as selfishness, self-consciousness and loneliness. (p.49)

 

What is indicated from the foregoing is the fact that folk theatre bears relevance on every society at any time, since its dynamics reflect the occurrence per time in every society.

 

Cultural Education

Cultural education refers to the indigenous forms of education that existed before the advent of Western and Islamic forms in Nigeria. In the traditional Nigerian society, the purpose of education was clear, functionalism was the guiding principle. Fafunwa (2004) states that:

Nigerian education emphasized social responsibility, job orientation, political participation and spiritual and moral values. Children learn by doing that is to say children and adolescent were engaged in participatory education through ceremonies, rituals, initiation, recitation and demonstration (p.2)

 

Education in traditional Nigerian society was an integrated experience. It combined character and intellectual training with manual activities like vocational and physical training. Denga (2002) roundly asserts that: “the primary objective of cultural education is to inculcate the right attitudes and values into children so as to enable them become well adjusted and integrated into the family and wider society”(p.2).  Children were properly initiated into various forms of value systems, festivals, age grades system, home education including toilet training and eating manners and general cleanliness; cultural values including traditional social norms, history, legend, myth, belief systems, folklore, dance, music and other rituals. Cultural education was also aimed at training youth in the major occupational activities of the society, which include the production of clothes, household items, craft and other items that were essential for the survival and perpetuation of the society. This is in line with Dzurgba’s (1999) submission:

It is real. It is so important that without it, culture, human existence, survival, continuity and progress would have been impossible. Without culture, human species would have lost the knowledge of even the simplest means of survival(p.7)

 

Therefore, cultural education which involves folk theatre is very important. However, it has been observed that folk theatre and cultural education have received undue neglect from school policy makers and the government. These two aspects have not received as much attention as science and technology, politics and national security in recent years. Meanwhile, this neglect is depriving the Nigerian youths the benefits of cultural education.

 

Secondary Education

Secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage. The broad goals of secondary education as stated in the National Policy on Education, 4th edition (FRN, 2004) in specific terms includes the aspect to:

Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles. Provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and commerce at sub-professional grades; develop and promote Nigerian languages, arts and culture in the context of world’s cultural heritage(p.18)

 

To actualize the stated goals, artisans can be employed to teach the students as an interim measure, Chika (2014) expatiates:

Would it be a bad idea if we asked artisans like roadside mechanics, painters, masons, carpenters, cobblers, bricklayers and palm wine tappers to go into our classrooms and impart their knowledge and skills to our students?  Will it take away anything from our vision of greater tomorrow if the folk narrators and dancers are deployed to the classrooms to fill in the obvious gaps that exist in terms of human resources in these areas? (p.26)

 

As a matter of fact, those artisans have the tools, the skills and the expertise and should be encouraged to impart them to the students. Many of them can speak passable pidgin English like “edey come, edey go” “dis chicken, na me or na you?” (Is this chicken, a male like me or a female like you?) Or “we dey go die” (we are attending a burial). As it is now, Pidgin English has become another form of Nigerian language and it is very easy for every Nigerian to understand it when applied within its context. Therefore, artisans who cannot speak standard English can explore Pidgin English to teach and where the need arises; use their native language for the students. It is important to note that folk theatre and cultural education draw people closer to their roots; it has a way of connecting the students to their origin. If taught and understood, knowledge of folk theatre and cultural education will enable the students make quality contribution to the society.

 

Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored on the folkist theory which became pronounced during the 19th Century, when scholars began studying the unwritten stories and other artistic traditions of the rural people. They coined the word ‘folk arts’ to distinguish between the ‘fine arts’ of the literate elites.  Generally, the verbal arts comprising the narratives have been divided into several basic and recurring categories which include myths, legends, and tales.  Folk theatre is an art form that is passed down from generation to generation.  As a reservoir of culture and a mirror of societal values, a major preoccupation of folk theatre revolves round improving the moral health of the society.  It reinforces societal beliefs, values, aspirations and worldview. Folk theatre exists to entertain, educate, inform, and criticize human behaviour with the intention to point out morally accepted values upon which the society is built.  Writing about the nature and functions of folk theatre to society, Akporobaro (2006) observes that:

Verbal forms of oral communication existed long before the advent of writing or printing in 1495 which made possible the tradition and forms of printed literature.  Right from his earliest origins until the advent and popularization of printing, man resorted to spoken words, to song narratives and recitations for the exercise of his creative impulse and abilities.(33)

 

These verbal forms of communication included narratives, drama, dance, poetry, incantations, proverbs, riddles as well as music. Folk theatre brings out the differentiation between evil and good in its attempt to point out acceptable code of behaviours. Finnegan (1970) attests to the pedagogical values of folk theatre as follows:

Public singing of topical and political songs can take the place of the press, radio and publication as a way of expressing public opinion and bring pressure to bear on individuals including the leaders. Folk songs constitute an indirect means of communicating with someone in power in a way by which the singers hope to influence while at the same time avoiding the open dangers of speaking directly.(273)

 

Arguing in the same vein, Ejelinma (2008) opines that:

 

Songs of scandal abound in every known community in Africa, especially in the traditional setting. There are songs to ridicule and scandalize irresponsible fathers and husbands, wayward and unfaithful women, quarrelsome couples, exploitative and fraudulent craftsman, incompetent and unskilled workers, the disobedient child and the bed welter. The songs are consciously designed to affect some amount of social control and to castigate deviants(p.59).

 

The role of folk theatre to society is further analysed by Ukala (1996) that:

In largely non-literate communities all over the world, the morals of folktales perform the same functions of humanization, spiritualization, inculcating, reinforcing beliefs and   moral and ethical attitudes essential for peaceful co-existence and subsequent national integration.(p.267)

 

Folk theatre which entails the tendency to base literary creation on history, culture and concern of the folk (the people generally) and to compose and perform them in accordance with African conventions provide veritable source materials for cultural education of Secondary School Students. The modus operandi is the basis for this paper.

 

Tiv Folk Theatre as source material for Cultural Education of Secondary School Students

Every system of education is firmly based on some kind of philosophical foundation and cultural education is no exception. Philosophy is the people’s outlook to life which involves the way they think, believe or feel. Philosophy of education varies from one society to another and from time to time in the same society. Consistent with the above, Nwala (1997) states that:

Because of lack of written literature in most parts of ancient African society we are unaware of the various Sages who had played role in the evolution of the worldview of the various traditional societies. Consequently, ancient traditional African philosophy has largely come to us as “collective wisdom”, “group mind” or folk art.(p.113)

 

This is contained in the folklore, folktales, proverbs, myths, idioms, legends and religious worship of the people. In agreement with this view Gbenga (2014) submits that:

In the face of modern development, where priority is being shifted to formal education in art, science and technology and Internet technology areas of human development, there is pressing need to impart cultural education as embedded in our arts and culture to our younger ones through educational theatre that need to be refocused from its present form to embrace the cultural intrinsic values of folklore to serve as a close gap between formal and informal education.(p35)

 

In the Tiv society specifically, folk theatre has crucial roles to play in a bid to promote and propagate Tiv traditional arts and culture which constitute the bedrock of our identity as a people. Societies can only ignore the potent power of cultural education at their own peril. Hence it is pertinent that Tiv folk theatre be used as a veritable source material for cultural education of Secondary School Students as that would help in building peace and conflict resolution mechanism in this our very complex but culturally endowed society. To actualize these, the section has been delineated into some areas for emphasis as follows:

 

Character Training    

Character is a combination of the ethical principles or values which have been embedded in the mind which constitute the characteristics, features or qualities of an individual. The qualities that define a person’s character include obedience, loyalty, humility, honesty, truthfulness, gentleness, kindness, love, patience and courage. These are the positive moral qualities which inform good conduct. On the opposite side of the ethical principles, there are disobedience, disloyalty, pride, dishonesty, deception, lying, falsehood, hatred, rudeness, arrogance, impoliteness, unkindness, hypocrisy, ingratitude, selfishness, cruelty, wickedness, trickery, indiscipline and intolerance. These are the ethical features which inform bad character.

In a typical Tiv society, folk theatre was used for character training through moral education. This was achieved in many ways like the use of folktales, myths, legends, proverbs, folksongs and dances. Indyer (1985) captures this as he states that: “Tiv folktales generally aimed at fulfilling the function of providing a model through which the youth can verbalize the relationship and constitution of their society”(p.8). The prime concern of Tiv folktales therefore was to provide a set of acceptable rules and regulations which would be acceptable and beneficial to the whole society. This was done by portraying bad aspects of society and individuals and qualifying such aspects with certain consequences or calamities. For instance, the tale of two travellers, has the potentials of reforming our youth to be generous and to be their brothers’ keepers as explicated thus:

Once upon a time, two very poor farmers, Agan and Aben went on a journey together. They were both good friends; however neither of them had any money. They travelled for many days and finally, being tired and hungry stopped at a shady spot near a river. Agan went to sleep and Aben strolled to the river bank to bathe, to his utter amazement Aben saw a bag with money. He counted the money and discovered that he had two hundred thousand naira (N200, 000.00). When Agan awake, Aben showed him the money he had found. Agan answered with joy, “now we shall enjoy our trip together; so much money will buy the best food and we can satisfy all our hearts’ desires”.

How can you talk like that? replied Aben, “You were not the one who found the money, why do you say “we” shall enjoy our trip? “This money belongs to me and it is my responsibility, how I keep and spend it”. Agan was angry, but he kept quiet with the hope that Aben would be generous. At once they started their journey to the nearest city where Aben hoped to find great amusement. While they were travelling they came to a deep, dark forest through which the road led. At once five armed robbers jumped out from behind them; “Give us your money and you will not be harmed”, one said. “Oh sir, we have nothing with us, you can see by our clothes we are only poor farmers”, cried Aben. “All right, we will search you: said the robbers, and if you have spoken the truth you shall not be harmed”. First they searched Agan and found nothing; thereafter they searched Aben and found him with two hundred thousand naira (N200, 000.00). You may depart in peace said the robbers to Agan. But as for you, you are a liar, you will follow us, they shouted as they beat Aben. And so Agan returned to his own farm alone, still poor, yet happy and free. His friend Aben lost both money and life. When Agan returned home his wife asked him, ‘My man’ did you have a good journey? He replied, ‘Yes’ very good. I came back alive. I have no more or less now than when I went. I had a very good journey. This tale could encourage the youth to live a communal life. Traditional Tiv society lived a communal life whereby the wealth of an individual was collectively shared by the community.

 

Intellectual Training

Intellectual development of the youth is characterized by increasing ability to grasp relationships, solve difficult problems, use abstract reasoning, remember events, use language effectively in communication and use past experiences to solve present and future problems. Folk Theatre activities could encourage intellectual growth and development of the youth through observation, imitation and participation as a method of teaching/learning. Folk Theatre also avails the youth the opportunity to learn about their local geography and history. Also through dramatic enactment, proverbs and riddles, the youths reasoning skills are sharpen. Specifically riddles constitute what is called oral wisdom which means good judgement. Tiv riddles have remained largely oral expressions which communicate perpetual and valuable ideas which are practically relevant. A few examples will suffice as interpreted by Dzurgba (2011)

  1. Iyuhe ka mtwuem

(jealousy is ashes)

Interpretation: The evil you do to others will return to you.

 

  1. Or fe Iyange i tondon igbum ga

(One does not know when one would have a wounded toe).

Interpretation: Help the afflicted; he might later be helpful in your own trouble.

 

iii.      Iber hee inya yo, nom iwya va due.

(Soon after the porridge poured on the ground a male dog arrived).

Interpretation: Soon after the problem occurred, the person with the right solution suddenly arrived and would successfully deal with the problem.

 

  1. Kwagh hir wua alom.

(Drama has killed the hare)

Interpretation: A trickster has damaged his own interest in the cause of being deceptive.

 

  1. Ican i iyange imom i wough or ga.

(One-day suffering does not kill a person).

Interpretation: Without immediate proper solution, problems are to be endured with patience and calmness.(p.132)

 

These riddles are also used to clarify obscure points during conversation and arguments to avoid direct questions.

The intellectual training of the youth could also be enhanced through observation and participation. Observation  means seeing and noticing. In order to assist the youths to develop their intellectual capacity through observation, they should be sent on an observation assignment. This could be at a national day celebration, a political rally, children’s day or a typical market situation. They should be made to discuss their observation in groups and come up with a scene to show off their observation. The teacher may then help them to select and rehearse the best aspect of the work. In respect of participation, it entails taking part or having a share of a particular activity. To help the youth to develop their intellectual capacity through participation they should be made to write a fable and act it out. The difference between these two is that for observation, the students are made to observe a real life situation and come out with a scene to show off their observation. While in the case of participation, the students are asked to imagine a story, write it and come out with a scene. All these are means to build up the intellectual capacity of the youth.

 

Vocational Training

Traditionally, vocational training was by apprenticeship. Children were not trained by parents alone but by relations, friends and master–craftsmen so as to ensure that the youth were well disciplined and had maximum concentration. The strongly developed “We” (ka se) feeling in the Tiv family was a basis to bring together members of the immediate and extended family such as father, mother,  uncles, aunts, cousins, brothers and sisters to serve as  teachers of the Tiv youth. Strict discipline was taught by the parents right from the toddler age. Vocational skills were also taught to children by the family. Where some home specialized in specific vocations, the youth were encouraged to emulate their Parents. Traditional vocations basically can be divided as follows;

Practical Technology: Knowledge about scientific or industrial methods or use of those methods; Building and roofing of thatched huts; making bamboo beds and wooden chairs; construction of foot paths and wooden bridges across streams and rivers; construction of a ladder for climbing walls, and buildings, trees and the roof of a house; manufacturing pots and calabashes; carving designs and pictures of products, digging wells for drinking water.

Practical Agriculture: Cultivating the land, planting of crops, weeding the farm, harvesting tubers and grains, transporting the crops to the compound, and storing the crops in safe places. Practical agriculture also involves fishing and rearing of domestic animals.

Practical Trade: Selling and buying of goods at local and distant markets; trade in dried and fresh meat and fish.  Production and selling of tobacco, vegetables, chickens, goats, sheep, cows, dogs, cats and so on.  It should be stressed that all these vocations were carried out at subsistence levels. The last category involves professionals like doctors, Priests, Village Heads, Chiefs, Tax Collectors, Judges, the Police and Messengers.

The introduction into Tiv land of Western currency, cash crops and taxation during the Colonial period altered Tiv vocational practice, linking it to both the Nigerian and world economies. This means that vocational activities were now determined by forces that were well beyond the control of Tiv people. The result was total abandonment of indigenous technology with all its comparative advantages. But it should be noted that people stop using their indigenous technology to transform their resources into goods only when they have learnt new and better methods of production. In developed countries, technology has taken over the place of manual production. Tiv society is not industrialized and the present situation does not inspire much hope, hence the need to continue to use our indigenous technology alongside the quest for advanced technological production. Tiv society has wealth lying everywhere but the people are not making good use of the wealth. Emphasis should therefore be on informal education and education for practical living in training our youth. This implies creating awareness of self and careers in the community. It entails orientation of the youth on self understanding in relation to the various occupational clusters; their roles and characteristics.

 

Physical Training

          The act of playing is an inborn and vital part of the youth, through play or games the youth develop physical assets which will be of great service to them as they grow older. Engaging in physical activities can facilitate the full development of the youth and achieve a balance education. Fafunwa (2007) affirms that:

The African child likes to explore his immediate environment, observe adults in their activities and imitate them–he enjoys discovering new situations. In traditional African society the child intuitively jumps, climbs a tree, dances or performs a balancing act because his siblings or his elders do the same.(p.7)

These acts equip him with necessary skills- physical, intellectual, moral, spiritual and vocational abilities to function effectively as a member of the community. Teachers can do a lot to foster good physical and moral development of the youth; one way of doing this is by engaging them in physical exercises such as jogging, dancing, dramatic enactment and other games. This is imperative because all nationalities, all ethnic groups are heirs to a rich store house of traditional children’s games, which still possess significant cultural and educational value. Unfortunately, majority of such games are not written. If concrete action is not taken, war and the ravages of time may rob posterity of much of the games. There is a great need to ensure that the folk culture of our people is not swept off by an avalanche of social change. This is an important assignment waiting for educators and scholars to accomplish. Play activities offer the youth the proper context to develop their mental characteristics and personal traits; of special significance is the dance among the Tiv people, as Hagher (2003) attests:

We can say that all Tiv dances contribute to physical and emotional release. This is because dance itself possesses the unique opportunity for a variety of emotional expressions. The dancers are able to release otherwise inexpressible thoughts and ideas, let off steam, and also resolve social conflict.(p.76)

Tiv traditional dances are expressive in action, vibrant and vigorous in nature as they communicate meaning or power which grows out of living experiences. For instance, in the old Tiv society a careless misapplication of a particular dance song would induce uncontrollable violence in a hitherto peaceful populace. One of such songs is mnyan cier mo, by an unknown artist below:

Mnyan cier mo

Uke hide

Oo Uke hide

 

Mnyan cier mo

Uke hide

Oo Uke hide

 

Shima yam ngi

Awambe awambe

Hoon, ngi awambe awambe. 2x

 

Translates:

I dream

The foreigners are back

Yes, the foreigners are back

 

I dream

The foreigners are back

Yes, the foreigners are back

 

My heart is bloody

Yes, it is bloody. 2x

 

The response to this song is spontaneous. Hagher (2003) elaborates:

People jump out of their houses, from bed, from eating, abandoning whatever they are doing and go out to first watch and join the procession which sing in unison keeping tune by stamping their feet and crossing their weapons with metallic clang.(p.80)

In this situation, dance serves as a collective force which brings the people together. It unites people and assures them of communal existence. Dance to them is therefore not mere gyration of the body parts but it is a sign of life itself which finds expression through the body.

 

Conclusion and Recommendations

The honour and greatness of a people is guaranteed only if they are conscious of their identity and have erudite pictures of what their needs and interests are, and are courageous and tactful in promoting and protecting their identity and in pursuing their needs and interests. With the breakup of our mental, emotional, spiritual and even physical links to our culture, due mainly to the negative impact of other influences on us, we have lost commitment to the main thrust of our culture and the instructions and injunctions handed over to us by our fore fathers. We no more consider ourselves as having a rich historical and cultural background to proudly bequeath to the in-coming generation. As a result we have become evil in our ways as a result of the influence of Western culture. But it should be noted that Tiv folk theatre has a major method of educating the youth by introducing them to the material and non-material culture, customs, beliefs and philosophy of the Tiv people. Hence the following measures are recommended as the way forward.

First, Benue State Ministry of Education and all the stake holders in education should ensure that the school curriculum is planned to take advantage of the huge creative music and dance tradition that abounds in Tivland. Furthermore, teachers, pupils and students must be convinced that creative music and dance have a justifiable place in the school curriculum. For it is not just meant to break educational boredom but to fulfil specific objective. In the same vein only professionals should be employed to handle music and dance classes. Teachers of other subjects should be encouraged to realise how their respective disciplines fit into the overall scheme of theatre related activities and what their own students stand to gain from participating in it.

Secondly, the Benue State Council for Arts and Culture should encourage research, study and performance of those other forgotten Tiv dances and include them in their repertoire for posterity. Such dances include: Gbaseela, Takera, Agbaga, Dasenda, Ange, Ingyough, Ibiamegh, Abur-abur, Divishen and a host of other dances. They should also take them round on tour to the secondary schools. This would help to remind and prick the conscience of the students towards the importance of those forgotten Tiv dances. Thirdly, parents should be encouraged to expose their children to folk theatre-related activities like storytelling, dance, music, riddles and jokes. The schools on their part should include on the time table a period for folktales. In such a period, the class teacher in conjunction with the principal or Headteacher should arrange with an experienced Tiv folk narrator who would lead the class during such a period. Also story telling competitions should be organized within the neighbouring schools where the students will attend and participate in the activities. Benue State Government on her part should encourage folktales by building wild life parks in the three Senatorial Districts of the State, so that the youth will be opportuned to have a physical look at some of the animals mentioned in the tales. Folk narrators on their part should organize themselves into associations, in order to attract Government assistance and to also share ideas for mutual help.

As Nigerians yearn for peace, unity and progress, we should realize that such can only be actualized through cultural education of youth. With the utilization of Tiv folk theatre by the primary and secondary schools, the pupils and students will be provided the opportunity to develop their creative and innovative abilities so that they can effectively contribute to the development of Tiv society and the Nation at large. It is hoped that with the recommendations above, Nigerians and the Tiv society in particular will work towards harnessing folk theatre for cultural education of primary and secondary school pupils and students in the nearest future.

 

 

 

References

Akporobaro, F.B.O. (2006). African oral literature. Lagos: Princeton Publishing Company, 2006.

Chika, A. (2011, September 27). “When experiment is the best teacher” Lagos: Daily Sun Issue Vol.8 No. 1307.

Denga, D.I. (2002). Educational and social psychology for schools and other social organizations. Calabar; clear-lines Publications.

Denga D. I.(2005). An introduction to foundation of education. Calabar: Clear Lines Publications Ltd.

 

Dzurgba, A. (2011). The Tiv and their culture. Ibadan: Jonh Archers.

Dzurgba, A. (1999). “Cultural relativity and cultural universality” in Angya, C.A. (eds) Makurdi Journal of Arts and Culture (MAJAC), Makurdi; Rich Publishers

Ejilinma, N. N. (2008). “The performing arts and social control in the traditional Igbo society: A focus on Igbo songs of scandals” in Austin Asagba (ed) Cross-Current in African Theatre Ibadan: Kraft books limited.

Encyclopedia Americana (2004). international edition, Vol. 11 USA Scholastic Library.

Fafunwa, A. B. (2004). History of education in Nigeria. Ibadan: NPS Educational Publishers  Limited.

Finnegan, R. (1970). Oral literature in Africa. London: Oxford University Press.

Gbenga, R. (2014). “Folklore as a source of material for educational theatre in secondary schools for cultural reconstruction”, in Ameh Dennis Akoh, Abdularasheed Abiodun Adeoye and Osita C. Ezenwanebe (eds) Theatre, Creativity and Democratic Practice in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Convention of SONTA 26-29 August, 2014, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

Hagher, I. (2003).  The kwagh-hir theatre. Ibadan: Caltop Publication Nigeria Limited.

Indyer, T. (1985). ‘The epic hero in ‘Tiv’ (B.A Project submitted to Theatre Arts Department University of Jos), unpublished.

National Policy on Education (NPE),  Lagos: NERDC Press, 2004.

Nkanga J.S. (2013). “dramatic play and the education of young children: the government primary school, Ikot Ntuen Oku Experience”. In Ameh Dennis  Akoh and Stephen E. Inegbe (eds) Arts, Culture and Communication in a Post colony: A Festschrift for Lawrence Olanrele Bamidele. Ibadan: Alpha Crownes publishers.

Nwachukwu, V. (2000). psychological fundamentals in Nigerian education. Enugu: Academic Printing Press.

Nwala T. Uzodinma, A modern introduction to philosophy and logic, Nsukka: Niger Books and Publishing Co. Limited, 1997.

Nzewi, M. (2006). “Dance and curriculum development” in Ahmed Yerima, Bakare Ojo-Rasaki, Arnold Udoka (eds). Critical Perspectives on Dance in Nigeria. Ibadan: Kraft Books limited.

Omotosho, C.(2013). “The educational values of African traditional practices” in Ameh Dennis Akoh and Stephen E. Inegbe (eds) Arts, Culture and Communication in a Post Colony: A Festschrift for Lawrence Olanrele Bamidele. Ibadan Alpha Crownes Publishers,.

Ukala, S. (1996). “Folkism: towards a national aesthetic principle of Nigerian dramaturgy”. In New Theatre Quarterly 47, Cambridge University Press.

Wegh, S. (1998). Between continuity and change: Tiv concept of tradition and modernity. Enugu: Snaap press Limited.

Copyright License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *